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Qua nhieu "san" trong sach Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT nam 2009 mon Ngu Van
Anh: VietNamNet.

Hai tuan qua, sach Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT nam hoc 2008-2009 da duoc phat hanh rong rai, nhieu hoc sinh va thay co giao da tim mua, trong do co bo mon Ngu van, do cac tac gia Vu Nho, Nguyen Duy Kha va Tran Dang Nghia bien soan. Doc cuon tai lieu huong dan on tap mon van ay, la cac thay giao day van, lai chuyen day lop 12, chung toi khong khoi that vong ve nhieu mat sai sot, han che cua cuon sach.

Be nguyen xi tai lieu cu, sach cu

Khi viet bai ve cuon sach Huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT Ngu van 2009 nay, tren tay chung toi co cuon Huong dan thi tot nghiep THPT nam 2008 cung do chinh cac tac gia Vu Nho - Nguyen Duy Kha bien soan. Sach on tap nam 2008, la thuoc ve chuong trinh cai cach, sach cu.

Doi chieu giua cuon Tai lieu Huong dan on tap cu voi cuon sach Huong dan on tap moi nam nay, chung toi that su bi "soc" khi nhan ra phan lon cac bai soan trong sach huong dan on tap Ngu van, nam 2009 deu duoc cop lai y chang, khong chinh sua mot dau cham, dau phay trong cuon Huong dan on tap cu, thuoc chuong trinh, sach giao khoa (SGK) cu.

Chung toi xin liet ke chi tiet ra day de ban doc nam:  Nguyen Ai Quoc - Ho Chi Minh, Tuyen ngon doc lap, Tay Tien, Viet Bac, Dat nuoc, Song, Nguoi lai do Song Da, Vo chong A Phu, Vo nhat, Rung xa nu, Tieng hat con tau, Thuoc, So phan con nguoi, Ong gia va bien ca, To Huu, Nguyen Tuan... So luong bai soan be nguyen xi sach on tap cu la chiem 70% luong kien thuc mon van 12. 30% bai, kien thuc con lai, cac tac gia khong cop duoc do day la nhung bai moi dua vao.

"Rau ong no cam cam ba kia"

Vi "cop" ao ao, khong he  doi chieu su khac biet giua sach moi voi sach cu, cai cach truoc day nen moi nay sinh chuyen "rau ong no cam cam ba kia", "dau Ngo minh So" trong cuon Huong dan on tap nam 2009. Chung toi chung minh cu the:

-  Bai: Nguyen Ai Quoc - Ho Chi Minh (trang 114) (danh rieng cho Bo sach nang cao), o muc Kien thuc co ban, cac nha bien soan be nguyen xi noi dung, kien thuc cua sach lop 12 he cai cach truoc day vao.

Trong khi do, bai hoc Nguyen Ai Quoc - Ho Chi Minh thuoc sach nang cao (trang 31) lai viet khac han so voi sach cu va sach chuan, nhat la muc Quan diem sang tac van hoc va Phong cach nghe thuat (do dung luong trang bao co han, toi khong tien neu chi tiet).

- Bai: Thuoc (Lo Tan), sach chuan va nang cao nam nay, o phan Tieu dan khong he co noi ve qua trinh hoc cac nghe cua Lo Tan, the ma cac tac gia lai van cho vao (giong nhu o SGK cu).

- Bai Ong gia va bien ca (He-minh-uay), SGK moi dau co muc nao de cap va hoi ve Nguyen ly tang bang troi cua nha van. Trong khi do, tai lieu on tap, o muc cau hoi va de van (trang 96) la co hoi cai ma sach moi khong day.

Voi ba minh chung neu tren, xin hoi cac nha viet cuon Huong dan on tap nay, hoc sinh hoc sach nang cao, sach chuan cua ca nuoc nen theo ai? Sach Huong dan on tap nay hay SGK nhi?

Nguyen tac ro rang, cai SGK khong co thi  huong dan on tap khong duoc dua vao. Trong phan mo dau cuon  Huong dan on Ngu van nam 2009, cac tac gia bien soan co neu dai the rang: “Sach on tap la huong dan cho hoc sinh nam nhung dieu co ban, cot loi nhat cua sach giao khoa”.

Thuc te cho thay, cac nguoi soan sach dang kinh cua chung ta da "noi mot dang, lam mot neo". Bat cac em hoc nhung cai o dau dau, khong nam trong SGK hien hanh. That la kho hieu!

Nam nay, day - hoc theo chuong trinh phan ban, sach moi hoan toan, khac xa sach cu, thi cac nha bien soan huong dan on tap phai bien soan, the hien theo chuong trinh, sach moi moi dung. Tai sao, cac tac gia lai copy sach cu vao cai moi nay?

Dau rang, sach moi, co lay lai nhieu tac pham, noi dung sach cu, co nhung gia tri khong thay doi, song cac nha soan chuong trinh, SGK da co nhieu doi moi, cai bien trong cach tiep can, the hien van de, chiem linh tac pham, nham phu hop voi phuong phap day - hoc moi hien nay.

Truoc khi bien soan sach nay, xin hoi la cac tac gia Vu Nho - Nguyen Duy Kha - Tran Dang Nghia co nam bat duoc nhung diem moi SGK phan ban khong? Toi tin chac rang cac ong chua nam duoc tinh than cua sach moi. Neu nam duoc cai moi, thi cac ong khong "lam an" cau tha, troi oi nhu the nay. Cac ong lay cai cu cua chuong trinh, sach cu ap cho cai moi, roi "bat" hoc sinh phai mua, phai hoc. That toi cho cac em qua!

Sai sot, thieu chuan xac

- Bai: Ai da dat ten cho dong song? (Hoang Phu Ngoc Tuong), o phan Luyen tap, cau 5 co hoi: So sanh cach tiep can song Da cua Nguyen Tuan voi cach tiep can song Huong cua Hoang Phu Ngoc Tuong. Goi y cho cau nay trong bang so sanh, o o giong nhau, cac tac gia viet: Cung viet tuy but ve mot dong song (trang 57).

Viet vay la khong chinh xac, de "giet chet" hoc sinh nhu choi. Vi tuy but Nguoi lai do song Da  cua Nguyen Tuan viet ve con song Da o Tay Bac. Con tuy but Ai da dat ten cho dong song? cua Hoang Phu Ngoc Tuong viet ve con song Huong o Hue. Sao lai ho do cho la co mot dong song thoi? Va trong phan nghe thuat bai hoc tren con thieu y rat co ban: la chat tai hoa, tinh te, uyen bac cua nha van.

Bia sach huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep THPT mon Ngu van.

- Bai: Rung xa nu (Nguyen Trung Thanh), phan Luyen tap, cau 1: Phan tich y nghia bieu tuong cua hinh anh cay xa nu (trang 76). Hoi ve y nghia bieu tuong nhung den phan goi y, o y thu nhat, cac nha soan sach lai tra loi sai hoan toan. Xin trich dan cu the: "Xa nu sinh soi nay no rat nhanh, rat khoe. No la loai cay ham anh sang, cung cap va vuon len che cho cho lang Xo Man. Tat ca nhung pham chat ay the hien ro suc song bat diet cua xa nu "(trang 76).

Cay xa nu phai bieu tuong cho doi tuong khac. Chu khong the bieu tuong cho chinh no duoc. Sai nua la cac pham chat ay khong the quy thanh “suc song bat diet cua xa nu”. Trong thuc te tac pham, cay xa nu van bi dan dai bac ke thu tieu diet, tan pha day thoi. 

Ngoai ra, cach goi y con thieu y: nguoi dan Xo Man ham tu do. Hon nua, cach sap xep y nhu the thieu chat che, logic, khong phu hop voi dien bien cua hinh anh co y nghia bieu tuong. Cai sai va cai thieu y, thieu logic tren co phai la do  su nham lan, cau tha cua cac nha soan sach?

- Bai: Thuoc (Lo Tan), muc Nghe thuat (trang 88), sach viet: “Thuoc co cot truyen kha don gian ma sau sac giong nhu mot buc tranh thuy mac voi nhung net cham pha tinh te”.  Cau tren dua ra loi so sanh khap khieng, thieu hop ly (co ai lai so sanh “Thuoc” nhu mot buc tranh thuy mac voi nhung net cham pha tinh te dau).

- Bai On tap ve van hoc nuoc ngoai, cau thu 6 co hoi: Y nghia phe phan va dac sac nghe thuat cua truyen ngan "Thuoc" cua Lo Tan. De tra loi cho cau hoi tren, cac tac gia viet: Dieu quan trong hon ma Lo Tan muon the hien la tu tuong yeu nuoc. Y nay sao co the goi la “Y nghia phe phan” duoc? Hoc theo kieu viet do, hoc sinh se "chet chac”.--PageBreak--

Lon xon, khong thong nhat

- Cau truc de thi va huong dan on tap  mon Van cua Bo  Giao duc & Dao tao da ban hanh, chi de cap, huong dan, gioi han hinh thuc thi tu luan. The nhung, trong phan Huong dan nhung van de chung ve on tap, o muc IV, cac tac gia lai gioi thieu ca hai hinh thuc trac nghiem khach quan.

Tai trang 5 cua phan thu nhat nay lai viet: a) Thi theo hinh thuc tu luan voi cac mon: Toan, Ngu van, Lich su, Dia ly. b) Thi theo hinh thuc trac nghiem doi voi cac mon: Vat ly, Hoa hoc, Sinh hoc, Ngoai ngu. Day la Sach Huong dan on tap Ngu van ma ghi nhieu kieu nhu the, khien cac em phan tam.

Va lai, phan "Nhung van de chung ve on tap va thi tot nghiep THPT nam 2009", dai den 12 trang, deu co, deu giong nhau o tat ca cac mon thi tot nghiep. Tai sao phan chung nay khong gom lai mot cho, hoac gui ve truong, pho bien cho cac em thi do phan lang phi, ton kem cho phu huynh, hoc sinh.

- Trong Muc 3 Chuan bi kien thuc, ren luyen ky nang la quan trong nhat, co cau: "Khi da chuan bi tot kien thuc, cac em hoc sinh co the tu thu suc, ren luyen, nang cao ky thuat lam bai theo cac hinh thuc va cau truc de thi, nhung cung can luu y la khong can thu suc qua nhieu, khong nen qua sa da vao nhieu de trac nghiem, vao cau truc de thi vi kien thuc trong do, mac du da kha nhieu noi dung, song thuong tan man, vun vat, khong  he thong, do vay hieu qua tang cuong kien thuc khong cao”. Cau van gi ma dai le the va toi nghia den the. Doc vao, nguoi lon, nguoi co trinh do chua chac hieu duoc dieu tac gia muon noi gi, huong chi la cac em hoc sinh.

- Bai: Mot nguoi Ha Noi (Nguyen Khai), phan Kien thuc co ban, o doan dau, muc 3 (trinh bay ve nghe thuat tac pham), cac tac gia lai lon dau lon duoi, khong phan biet duoc y do la noi dung hay la nghe thuat, trong truong hop: Cau chuyen xoay quanh nhan vat chinh la ba Hien, mot nguoi Ha Noi cang ngay cang the hien ve dep van hoa va ban linh cua mot nguoi binh thuong, mot cong dan cua Thu do” (trang 135). Viet the ma dua vao muc nghe thuat. Dung la het biet.

- Muc: Van hoc Viet Nam tu nam 1945 den nam 1975 co 3 dac diem  co ban, giua bai Khai quat van hoc Viet Nam tu Cach mang Thang Tam nam 1945 den het the ky XX (trang 13) voi bai On tap (trang 58) lai trinh bay khong thong nhat, moi bai mot co “ve rieng”. Gay kho khan cho hoc sinh. Nen theo cai nao day?

Nhan xet chung

Sach huong dan on tap mon Ngu van lop 12, do Nha xuat ban Giao duc an hanh, chi co tong cong 160 trang nhung gia ban len den 16.000 dong. Cao gap doi so voi SGK. Vay cai tinh phuc vu, quan tam thiet thuc den hoc sinh, nhat la cac em vung nong thon, mien nui con nhieu kho khan, thieu thon, o cho nao?

Ngoai nhung "hat san" da neu tren, chung toi con nhan thay, chat luong bien soan o tung bai cu the chua tot. Nhieu goi y cho cac cau hoi, de van y tu lon xon, thieu tinh he thong, khoa hoc, cau tu lung cung, nghieng ve ke le dong dai....

Nhieu bai nhu Tay Tien, Thong diep nhan Ngay the gioi phong chong AIDS, 1/12/2003,  Ai da dat ten cho dong song, Vo nhat, Hon Truong Ba da hang thit... bien soan rat so sai. Hai bai ve  Nghi luan xa hoi se co mat trong de thi (gom 3 diem) theo cau truc de thi cua Bo, rat can thiet huong dan cu the cho hoc sinh thi lai bo qua, chang thay dau.

Hoi rat nhieu giao vien day van cho biet y kien ve cuon Huong dan on tap mon Ngu van nam 2009 cua cac tac gia Vu Nho - Nguyen Duy Kha - Tran Dang Nghia, toi deu nhan duoc nhung cai lac dau, chac luoi, viet qua au, sai sot nhieu, hoc sinh- thay co giao khong the hoc hoi duoc gi, khong chi mat tien ma con co the lam thui chot nang luc hoc va viet van cua cac hoc sinh nua.

Chat luong bien soan nhu the, toan cop cai cu gan vao, sai sot tum lum nhu the, chung toi khong hieu tai sao Bo Giao duc lai cho phat hanh tren toan quoc?

De  tao cong bang, khach quan, tranh gay thiet thoi cho hoc sinh, chung toi de nghi, Bo Giao duc & Dao tao can  lay y kien rong rai cac thay co truong pho thong va co ban, nguoi tham dinh lai mot cach nghiem tuc chat luong sach huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep mon Ngu van nam 2009, cung nhu tai lieu on tap cac mon khac. Neu thay khong duoc, de nghi thu hoi, dung ngay viec phat hanh va quy ro trach nhiem.

Chung toi duoc biet, 2 nam truoc day, Bo Giao duc da tung cam  bien soan cuon Huong dan on tap thi THPT cac mon. Thuc te, ket qua thi tot nghiep cac nam do khong he giam sut. Tai sao, hai nam nay lai cho phep tro lai?

Thiet nghi, huong dan on tap thi tot nghiep la khong can thiet, no vua lam roi loan viec on tap vua gay ton kem, lang phi vo ich doi voi hoc sinh. Theo chung toi ve phia Bo chi dua ra huong dan, cau truc de thi chung, nen de tu giao vien, nha truong dinh huong cho cac em, la du

Bui Tan Nam - Nguyen Viet Hoa - Do Tan Ngoc