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Bai 2: Sach trinh tham chinh tri - manh dat mau mo
(TT&VH Cuoi tuan) - Khac voi loai sach trinh tham co dien dua tren cai truc chinh vu an - dieu tra toi pham voi cac tac gia da tro thanh kinh dien nhu Arthur Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Georges Simenon... (hau het tac pham cua cac tac gia nay deu da duoc dich gioi thieu o Viet Nam), con duong cua sach trinh tham chinh tri den voi nguoi doc Viet Nam kha lat leo.

Tinh bao, phan gian co phai la trinh tham?


Ban than khai niem sach trinh tham chinh tri cung da het suc da dang va kha phan tan. Truoc het, noi dung cua no phai lien quan den nhung van de mang tinh chinh tri, hoat dong cua cac diep vien, diep vu, cac co quan tinh bao hay phan gian (ca hu cau lan phi-hu cau). Truoc day, khi dat nuoc con chia cat va cuoc chien tranh lanh van hoanh hanh tren the gioi, nguoi doc Viet Nam chu yeu biet den the loai sach nay duoi ten goi tieu thuyet tinh bao hay phan gian. Nguon sach chu yeu den tu Lien Xo va cac nuoc XHCN Dong Au hay Cuba.

Da co mot thoi, nhieu ban doc Viet Nam say sua tieu thuyet tinh bao Nam tuoc Phon Gonring cua Iuri Mikhailic (ten goc trong tieng Nga la Mot minh tren chien truong van la chien si), Ham bi mat ben bo song Elbo (va phan tiep theo cua cuon nay la Vuot qua luoi thep), Thanh kiem va la chan..., tieu thuyet phan gian Chiec khuy dong, sau nay la Bien lanh, Hiep hai va mot trong nhung cuon sach hiem hoi ve tinh bao - phan gian Cuba: Bong chim cau tren song bien Miami...

Tieu thuyet trinh tham chinh tri hu cau kha it, loai phi-hu cau cang it hon, co the ke toi Bay nam gian kho, viet ve qua trinh tham nhap vao dai chau Au tu do cua mot si quan tinh bao Ba Lan la Sekhovic va vai cuon sach ve nha tinh bao Richard Sorge (Nha tinh bao vi dai, Nguoi da cuu Moscow, Richard Sorge). Co le tac gia noi tieng, duoc nguoi doc Viet Nam biet den nhieu nhat thoi ky nay la nha van Lien Xo Iulian Semionov voi cac tac pham nhu Muoi bay khoanh khac cua mua Xuan (tinh bao), TASS duoc quyen tuyen bo (phan gian)... Da co truyen thuyet rang tac pham Muoi bay khoanh khac cua mua Xuan viet ve hoat dong cua nha tinh bao Isaev Shtirlitz (cung duoc dung thanh phim va het suc noi tieng) chan thuc den noi nha lanh dao Lien Xo thoi bay gio la Leonid Brezhnev, sau khi doc xong, da yeu cau cac co quan chuc nang cua Lien Xo lam thu tuc de phong danh hieu anh hung cho Isaev Shtirlitz! Sau cuon nay, nguoi doc Viet Nam tiep tuc duoc theo doi hoat dong tinh bao cua Shtirlitz trong nhung tac pham noi theo cung cua Iulian Semionov la Lenh phai song (hai tap) va Banh truong (khong hieu vi sao chi ra co mot tap roi ngung).

Trong khi ay, the loai trinh tham chinh tri tren the gioi phat trien manh me. Do anh huong cua cuoc xung dot y thuc he cung nhu chien tranh lanh tren pham vi toan the gioi vao thoi ky do nen hau het cac tac pham trinh tham chinh tri deu phan anh sau sac quan diem cung nhu su muong tuong ve ke thu cua cac tac gia. Thomas Power, tac gia cuon tieu thuyet gian diep noi tieng Nguoi nam giu bi mat: Richard Helms va CIA, noi: “Tieu thuyet gian diep trong thoi ky nay chinh la tam guong phan anh mot cach trung thuc nhat nhung sac thai cua cuoc chien tranh lanh. No da day chung ta nhieu dieu hon bat ky nhung bai dien thuyet dai dong nao ve cuoc chien giua hai he thong tren the gioi”.

Mot trong nhung tac gia noi tieng nhat cua thoi ky nay la Ian Fleming, nguyen la mot diep vien lam viec trong tinh bao hai quan Anh thoi ky de nhi the chien va ca sau khi chien tranh ket thuc. Ian Fleming chinh la cha de cua nhan vat diep vien 007 James Bond qua 14 tieu thuyet, mot mau nguoi hung phuong Tay vua hoat dong diep bao vua tan gai va noc ruou nhu hu chim. Hau het cac tac pham cua Ian Fleming deu duoc gioi thieu o mien Nam truoc nam 1975 duoi dang ban dich hoac phong tac (chu yeu cua tac gia Hoang Hai Thuy). Cung chinh diep vien 007 James Bond la hinh mau de cho mot tac gia o mien Nam, von la luat su, duoi but danh Nguoi Thu Tam, da copy va “sang tac” ra mot mau nguoi hung tuong tu la diep vien Z28 Tong Van Binh trong loat truyen Z28 voi tren duoi 50 quyen phat hanh rong rai o mien Nam thoi ky truoc 1975. Sau 1975, mot so tac pham cua Ian Fleming da duoc gioi thieu la Bi mat dao phan chim, Song bac Hoang gia, Diep vu kim cuong, Song hay la chet, Chien dich sam set.

Mot tac gia thuoc vao loai xuat sac nhat cua the loai trinh tham chinh tri thoi ky nay la John Le Carre, voi tac pham Nguoi ve tu vung lanh, doat giai thuong Somerset Maugham tai Anh nam 1964 (xuat ban o mien Nam truoc 1975 voi hai ban dich khac nhau, mot co nhan de Nguoi tu mien dat lanh, mot la Mau dam buc tuong Ba Linh. Do quan diem thien kien cua John Le Carre nen cac tac pham viet ve thoi ky chien tranh lanh cua tac gia trinh tham chinh tri bac thay nay it duoc gioi thieu o mien Bac truoc nam 1975).

Mot tac gia rat xuat sac khac co nhieu tac pham duoc gioi thieu o Viet Nam la Frederick Forsyth. Mo dau la cuon tieu thuyet Mot ngay cua Cho Rung (1971), duoc dich duoi nhan de Ke giet muon, ke ve vu am sat Tong thong Phap Charles De Gaulle cua mot sat thu mau lanh nguoi Anh, vo cung hap dan. Mot cuon khac cua cung tac gia cung duoc gioi thieu la Ho so ODESSA, kham pha am muu di tan nhung ten toi pham phat xit Duc sau chien tranh the gioi thu hai.

Cuoc chien khoc liet giua cac co quan tinh bao trong boi canh doi dau chinh tri Dong-Tay cung xuat hien trong mot so cac tac pham trinh tham chinh tri hiem hoi duoc dich o Viet Nam nhu Nui bang troi cua Arnaud de Borchgrave va Robert Moss, Ke lua doi cua Frederick Forsyth, Phan cong cua Sean Flanery, Doi cho cua John Le Carre, Giao chu trong dien Kremli cua Tom Clancy (mot tac gia trinh tham chinh tri rat noi tieng cua My nhung it duoc dich o Viet Nam)...

Buoc ngoat sau 11/9/2001

Chien tranh lanh ket thuc, tieu thuyet trinh tham chinh tri duong nhu bat dau buoc vao thoi ky suy tan. Cac ke thu cu truoc day nay tro thanh doi tac cua nhau, cac hoat dong mat bi thu hep lai. Su phat trien vuot bac cua cong nghe gay cho nguoi ta cam giac rang may moc co kha nang thay the cho con nguoi va cac hoat dong diep bao co dien dan lui vao di vang.


The nhung vu khung bo ngay 11/9, hai cuoc chien tranh o Iraq va cuoc chien tranh Afghanistan da lam thay doi quan niem do va tieu thuyet trinh tham chinh tri tiep tuc tim duoc nhung mien dat moi de khai pha. Gio day, ke thu da thay doi. Do co the la su ket hop giua mot ten khung bo voi mot co quan tinh bao thu dich, hay don gian chi la nhung phan tu khung bo, cuc doan, tin tuong mot cach mu quang vao nhung giao ly chet nguoi cua chung. Khong con nhung chien tuyen ro rang nua. Hoat dong tinh bao, gian diep mang nhung mau sac moi, duoi nhung hinh thai moi. “Chung toi da duoc thuc tinh - Frederick Forsyth noi - Bay gio la luc ra doi cua nhung cuon sach dua tren co so mot the gioi moi, nhung cong nghe moi trong the gioi ay va cuoc chien chong khung bo”.

Cac tac gia moi noi cung nhu co dien cua dong sach trinh tham chinh tri nhanh chong cho ra doi hang loat nhung tac pham moi. Frederick Forsyth co Ke lua doi (ve diep vien Mc Cready hoat dong khap the gioi), Nhung bi an cua sa mac (ve du an che tao Sieu dai bac cua chinh quyen Tong thong Saddam Hussein), Nguoi tu Afghanistan (ve mang luoi khung bo va cuoc chien o Afghanistan). John Le Carre co Doc ho (hoat dong diep bao chong khung bo), Tho may Panama (duoc gioi thieu o Viet Nam duoi nhan de Nguoi tinh Panama, chac de cau khach!)... Ngoai ra con co Ngay tan the cua Moris Fairhi (ve hoat dong diep bao o Trung Dong), San duoi cua Gordon Thomas (ve hoat dong chong khung bo)... Moi nhat la bo ba tac pham cua Daniel Silva gom Hoa than, Nguoi dua tin, Ke phung su tham lang. Day la 3 trong so 12 tac pham cua cung tac gia nay ma 9 trong so do co nhan vat chinh la diep vien sat thu Gabrrel Allon, hoat dong chu yeu tren mat tran chong khung bo. Hau het cac tac pham cua Daniel Silva deu nam trong danh sach bestseller cua Thoi bao New York.

Cung khong the khong ke den mot nhanh khac cua the loai tieu thuyet trinh tham chinh tri, bao gom cac hoi ky cua nhung nguoi dung dau cac co quan tinh bao hoac cuu diep vien nhu Diep vien tu Israel toi (ve diep vien Eli Cohen cua Israel), Cuoc chien dau tham lang cua toi (hoi ky cua diep vien Kim Philby), Ky thuat tinh bao (hoi ky cua cuu Giam doc CIA Allen Dulles), Tam nhin Beclinh (hoi ky cua Chi huy tinh bao Dong Duc Markus Wolf), Ten trum mat vu phat xit Duc thu nhan (hoi ky cua trum tinh bao phat xit Duc Walter Schellenberg), CIA va benh sung bai tinh bao (cua hai chuyen gia CIA la Victor Marchetti va J. Marks), Lo hong lon (cua cuu diep vien Richard Tomlinson), Mat bao (hoi ky cua cuu Giam doc CIA George Tenet), Bat gian diep (cua cuu diep vien Anh Peter Wright), Nhung chien dich dac biet (cua cuu chi huy tinh bao Nga Pavel Sudoplatov)...

Hoac cac tieu thuyet phi-hu cau ve cac vu an gian diep co that nhu Thoat khoi CIA cua Ronald Kessler (ve vu dao thoat sang My roi tai dao thoat cua dai ta KGB Yuri Yurchenko), Diep vien o Washington cua Peter Maas (ve vu diep vien CIA Aldrich Aimes hoat dong cho KGB)... Rieng ve diep vien cong san lung danh Pham Xuan An cua Viet Nam cung da co it nhat hai cuon cua tac gia nuoc ngoai duoc dich nguoc tro lai gioi thieu voi doc gia Viet Nam la Diep vien hoan hao, cua Larry Berman va Pham Xuan An: Cau chuyen khac thuong ve mot diep vien da thach thuc nuoc My, cua Jean-Claude Pomonti.

Yen Ba

Bai 3: Huong di moi?